Well Oracle OpenWorld 2010 has finally arrived. The first thing I’ve noticed is just how many more people appear to be around at the conference this year compared to last. Better economic times and the addition of the JavaOne component have certainly made a difference. Here’s a piece of advice. Don’t go out drinking lots [...]
I find it convenient occasionally to “translate” a frequency histogram into a report of the underlying data (sometimes to see how closely the histogram matches the real data). To demonstrate the type of query I use I’ve created a data set with a small number of distinct values and generated a frequency histogram on the data set. This is what the data and histogram look like:
SQL> desc t1 Name Null? Type ----------------------- -------- ---------- N1 NOT NULL NUMBER SQL> select n1, count(*) from t1 group by n1 order by n1; N1 COUNT(*) ---------- ---------- 10 4 20 3 30 6 40 38 50 4 60 13 70 6 80 41 90 2 100 3 SQL> select 2 endpoint_number, endpoint_value 3 from 4 user_tab_histograms 5 where 6 table_name = 'T1' 7 and column_name = 'N1' 8 order 9 by endpoint_number 10 ; ENDPOINT_NUMBER ENDPOINT_VALUE --------------- -------------- 4 10 7 20 13 30 51 40 55 50 68 60 74 70 115 80 117 90 120 100
If you look at the histogram data you’ll see that the “endpoint_value” column holds a list of the values that appear in column n1, and the “endpoint_number” is the ‘cumulative frequency’ for the appearances of the endpoint_value – the number 10 appears 4 times, the number 20 appears 7 – 4 = 3 time, the value 30 appears 13 – 7 = 6 times, and so on.
This post has bee updated live from the Oracle OpenWorld as I’m learning what’s new. Last update done on 28-Sep-2010.
Oracle Exadata v2 has been transformed into x2-2 and x2-8. x2-2 is just slightly updated while x2-8 is a much more high-end platform. Please note that Exadata x2-2 is not just an old Exadata v2 — it’s a fully refreshed model. This is a huge confusion here at the OOW and even at the Oracle web site.
The new Exadata pricing list is released and Exadata x2-2 costs exactly the same as old Exadata v2. Exadata x2-8 Full Rack (that’s the only x2-8 configuration — see below why) is priced 50% higher then Full Rack x2-2. This is hardware price only to clarify the confusion (updated 18-Oct-2010).
Exadata Storage Server Software pricing is the same and licensing costs per storage server and per full rack is the same as for Exadata v2 because number of disks didn’t change. Note that storage cells got upgraded but priced the same when it comes to Exadata Server software and hardware. Nice touch but see implications on databases licensing below.
This comparison is for Full-Rack models Exadata x2-2 and x2-8 and existing v2 model.
Finally, data-sheets are available for both x2-2 (Thx Dan Norris for the pointers):
It means that live update of this post is probably over (27-Sep-2010).
|v2 Full Rack||x2-2 Full Rack||x2-8 Full Rack|
|Database servers||8 x Sun Fire x4170 1U||8 x Sun Fire x4170 M2 1U||2 x Sun Fire x4800 5U|
|Database CPUs||Xeon E5540 quad core 2.53GHz||Xeon X5670 six cores 2.93GHz||Xeon X7560 eight cores 2.26GHz|
|Storage cells||14 x SunFire X4275||14 x SunFire X4270 M2||14 x SunFire X4270 M2|
|storage cell CPUs||Xeon E5540 quad core 2.53GHz||Xeon L5640 six cores 2.26GHz||Xeon L5640 six cores 2.26GHz|
|storage cells CPU cores||112||168||168|
|IO performance & capacity||15K RPM 600GB SAS or 2TB SATA 7.2K RPM disks||15K RPM 600GB SAS (HP model – high performance) or 2TB SAS 7.2K RPM disks (HC model – high capacity)
Note that 2TB SAS are the same old 2 TB drives with new SAS electronics. (Thanks Kevin Closson for ref)
|15K RPM 600GB SAS (HP model – high performance) or 2TB SAS 7.2K RPM disks (HC model – high capacity)
Note that 2TB SAS are the same old 2 TB drives with new SAS electronics. (Thanks Kevin Closson for ref)
|Database Servers networking||4 x 1GbE x 8 servers = 32 x 1GbE||4 x 1GbE x 8 servers + 2 x 10GbE x 8 servers = 32 x 1Gb + 16 x 10GbEE||8 x 1GbE x 2 servers + 8 x 10GbE x 2 servers = 16 x 1Gb + 16 x 10GbEE|
|InfiniBand Switches||QDR 40Gbit/s wire||QDR 40Gbit/s wire||QDR 40Gbit/s wire|
|InfiniBand ports on database servers (total)||2 ports x 8 servers = 16 ports||2 ports x 8 servers = 16 ports||8 ports x 2 servers = 16 ports|
|Database Servers OS||Oracle Linux only||Oracle Linux (possible Solaris later, still unclear)||Oracle Linux or Solaris x86|
x2-8 has fewer but way bigger database servers. That means that x2-8 will scale better with the less RAC overhead for the databases. The bad news is that if one database server fails or down for maintenance, 50% of capacity is gone. What does that mean? It means that Exadata x2-8 is designed more for multi-rack deployments so that you can go beyond “simple” 2 node RAC. Some folks argue that two node RAC is less reliable for evictions and etc but you probably don’t know that Exadata has special IO fencing mechanism that makes it much more reliable.
Because there is 4 times more RAM in Exadata x2-8, more and more operations can be done fully in memory without even going to storage cells. This is why boost in number of cores / CPU performance is important — since InfniBand bandwidth stays the same, you need some other way to access more data so having more data on buffer cache will keep more CPU cores busy.
With Exadata x2-2, processing capacity on database servers increased and RAM increase is insignificant. So how does it impact “well-balanced” Exadata v2? Well, if more and more operations are offloaded to storage cells then database servers could have more “useful” data pumped in over InfniBand and actually spend CPU cycles processing the data rather then filtering it. With Exadata v2, depending on the compression level, CPU was often a bottleneck on data loads so having some more CPU capacity on database tiers won’t harm.
Old configuration v2 will not be available so be ready to spend more on Oracle database licenses unless you are licensed under ULA or something.
Both Exadata x2-8 and x2-2 will run updated Oracle Linux 5.5 with Oracle Enterprise Kernel. x2-8 can also run Solaris x86 on database servers as expected. This confirms my assumption that if Oracle adds Solaris x86 into Exadata, it will prove that Oracle is fully committed to Solaris Operating System. A rather pleasant news to me! However, Solaris 11 Express is not available right now and probably will be available towards the end of this calendar year.
If you look at x2-2 and x2-8 side by side physically, you will see that four 1U databases servers of x2-2 basically replaced by one 5U database server in x2-8 in terms of space capacity. There are also more internal disks in those bigger servers and more power supplies so they are more redundant.
More processing power on storage servers in x2-8 and x2-2 (not dramatically more but definitely noticeable) will speed up smart scans accessing data compressed with high level. As more and more operations can be uploaded to the storage cells, boost in CPU capacity there is quite handy. Note that this doesn’t impact licensing in any way — Exadata Storage Server Software is using number of physical disk spindles as the licensing metric.
Regarding claims of the full database encryption — need to understand how it works and what are the improvements. Oracle Transparent Data Encryption was available on Exadata v2 but had many limitations when using with other Exadata features. I assume that Exadata x2-x addresses those but need to follow up on details so stay tuned. I believe that customers of Exadata v2 will be able to take advantage of all new Exadata software features – the platform architecture hasn’t changed.
Many folks have been wondering about when or if Oracle will integrate servers based on the Intel Xeon 7500 (Nehalem EX) family of processors. As of this morning, there are two freshly-announced packaging options that include: Exadata Database Machine X2-8 HP Full Rack Exadata Database Machine X2-8 HC Full Rack Both of these configuration options [...]
After hours of careful planning (as you’ll see from the images) I decided to webcast my tomorrow’s Oracle Closed World hacking session…
This session isn’t necessarily going to be useful, but it definitely should be fun !!!
You can register here:
Liveblogging announcements from Sunday’s Oracle OpenWorld Keynote.
It’s 5:36 PM now – stay tuned…
5:44pm: Larry couldn’t get his boat under the Golden Bridge — next yer he needs a smaller boat or rebuild the bridge? :)
5:50pm: Oracle Partners Specialization awards… oh well, why is Pythian not on stage with our 4 Specializations? :(
5:51pm: Wow… Ann Livermore, EVP of HP, is on stage… about HP Oracle partnership… I don’t supposed she will talk about Mark Hurd. :)
@gvwoods 40% of Oracle on HP
5:58pm: I was all pumped for Larry and getting bored now… come on already!
6:02pm: Hm… while HP is focused on services, I think Oracle’s strategy is to leverage partners for that. HP is pitching completely different approach then Oracle… and HP is talking about software they have… HP (h/w company) talks about their software at Oracle’s event (HP’s s/w partner)? Weird… Completely misaligned messaging!
06:07pm: @alexgorbachev: NOT INTERESTED in HP cloud solutions… audience is not even applauding – I hear snoring around… Give us Exalogic already!
06:07pm: Very interesting slides about HP storage – X9000 IBRIX (iBrick?) Indeed, NAS rocks for manageability
06:22pm: OK… pumping up again… I won’t be able to do it more than three times in a day! (my first pumped up state was at my presentation)
06:24pm: Damn… they did it again :( I was just getting excited… I wonder if there is any time left to announce anything. Is Larry sleeping or late by any chance?
06:36pm: Don’t know if I can be excited again… Trying really hard now… I think I manged – pumped up!
06:45pm: Larry is out…
Larry clarifies what cloud computing it according to Oracle. Calls SalesForce.com an “old SaaS Technology” and Amazon EC2 — “Innovative”.
So Oracle’s definition of cloud computing is pretty much what Amazon.
Heh… I think Larry just stole slides from my presentation on Thursday!
06:54pm: Finally, Exalogic Elastic Compute cloud:
* InfiniBand 40Gbit – so as expected no InfiniBand upgrade
* High performance storage
* 30 severs in “the box” (he calls it a box!)
* 360 cores (12 cores per server – I’m sure that’s 2 x 6 cores CPUs – expect Exadata v3 database server to use the same)
* Super simple patching – yes we like it!
* Guest OS’s – Linux and Solaris x86 (yay – I knew that)
* Apps hosted – WebLogic, Coherence, JRockit
* Virtualization is Oracle VM
Exalogic – Speed, Utility, Availability, Scalable, Manageable, Secure
Exalogic delivers 1 million HTTP requests per second.
960GB Solid state disks
1.2 microsecond latency
10Gbe connecton to data-center
40TB SAS disk storage
4TB read cache
72GB write cache
Tech geekery: “Looks like WebLogic has now node affinity working via UCP (instead of JDBC drivers) connecting to Oracle RAC – it can keep same web connection on the same RAC node.”
Exalogic will consolidate all apps that Oracle delivers (I guess if they run on Linux of Solaris x86).
1 Exadata rack and 1 Exalogic rack can run the whole Facebook according to Larry. I have troubles believing this but that’s a nice bold comparison.
You know what… it’s enough – off to ACED dinner – need to be at Pier 40 by 8pm.
Day 2 was full of stuff I can’t speak about again, so I’ll keep this brief. The highlight for me was Wim Coekaerts speaking about Linux and Virtualization. I love listening to Wim speak about technology. It feels like you are chatting with your mate about technology stuff. He’s a real low-temperature guy. There were a few people there who were hearing Wim speak for the first time who are now converts. Perhaps I should start a fanboy club…
I intended to go to bed early, but ended up chatting until after midnight.
The following day (Saturday) was an off day. I had oringinally intended to do some stuff with a couple of the guys, but was so tired I gassed out. I woke up in the morning, got some food and went back to bed. At about 18:00 I ventured out for some food again, then went straight back to bed. Amazingly, I managed to sleep all night as well.
Note - features in this post require the Diagnostics Pack license
Not long after I'd finished the last post, I realised I could reinforce the points I was making with a quick post showing another one of the example tests supplied with Swingbench - the Calling Circle (CC) application. Like the Sales Order Entry application, CC is a mixed read/write test consisting of small transactions. As always, there's more information at Dominic's website.
One of the main differences to the SOE test is that the CC test consumes data so you need to generate a new set of data before each test using the supplied ccwizard utility. I won't show you the entire workflow here but enough to give you a flavour of the process. The utility is the same one used to create the necessary CC schema in the first place but the option I'm looking for here is "Generate Data for Benchmark Run".
I'd already decided that my CC schema is populated with data for 1 million customers when I created it so I just need to specify the number of transactions the next test will be for. I happen to know that on my particular configuration, a 1000 transaction test will take around 5 minutes to run.
I ran the test twice. I've highlighted the first run here in the Top Activity page.
It should be clear that CC suffers significant log file sync waits on my particular test platform, just like the SOE test. Therefore I'll regenerate the test data set, enable asynchronous commits and re-run the test. Here I've highlighted the second test run.
As well as seeing a similar change in the activity profile according to the ASH samples (the log file sync activity has disappeared as has the LGWR System I/O), there's a significant difference to the SOE test. Because this test run is based on a specific workload volume, as defined by the size of the test data, rather than a fixed time period, the second test run completed more quickly than the first run. The activity only fills the 5 minute activity bar partially, rather than the first test which filled the whole bar.
If you test a specific and limited workload volume it is much clearer from the Top Activity page which test is processing transactions more quickly, based on the Time axis. That's why I didn't pick this example the first time - it's too obvious what's going on!
Chips. I had an accidental delete from this mini blog post while clicking and editing it via my Android WordPress app on my phone, so here after searching some blog aggregates I have “re-builded” it. Leaves me to say that, if I am correct the games was won, if I am correctly informed, by 42 to 37 by Michigan… I really, Really liked it !
Got all those tweets from OOW ACED people in San Francisco while we here, the OakTable MOTS speakers, in Michigan got up at 6 am for a small breakfast and out the door at 8 am to join the 120.000 Michigan Football fans in “the Big House”.
So stop whining about early, I am sitting here in the rain, early, but with great people and warm coffee… Let the game begin…
Some attempts at “Live broadcasting” the event, via my mobile, here b.t.w.: http://bambuser.com/channel/MGralike