Usually the Cost-Based Optimizer arrives at a reasonable execution plan if it gets the estimates regarding cardinality and data scattering / clustering right (if you want to learn more about that why not watch my Webinar available at "AllThingsOracle.com"?).
Here is an example I've recently come across where this wasn't case - the optimizer obviously preferred plans with a significantly higher cost.
The setup to reproduce the issue is simple:
Oracle 11.2 introduced a set of new Query Transformations, among others the ability to coalesce subqueries which means that multiple correlated subqueries can be merged into a number of less subqueries.
Timur Akhmadeev already demonstrated the basic principles in a blog entry, but when I was recently involved into supporting a TPC-H benchmark for a particular storage vendor I saw a quite impressive application of this optimization that I would like to share here.
In the previous post I wrote about strangely behaving V$SQL. For some reason there were duplicate rows leading to wrong results issue when running DBMS_XPLAN.DISPLAY_CURSOR for a particular child cursor. I tried to reproduce the issue using simple test case – and it was reproduced.
Here it is. I’m starting to execute a simple query against DUAL while constantly changing optimizer environment, forcing Oracle to build a new child cursor for each execution:
The column is there for a long time – even 9i documentation have it. I’ve never thought about it until today when I caought something extraordinary on 220.127.116.11 instance.
Starting with 10g oracle introduced SQL_ID for simplicity; it is used in combination with CHILD_NUMBER to locate a particular row in the V$SQL. The documentation is clear (bold is mine):
V$SQL lists statistics on shared SQL areas without the GROUP BY clause and contains one row for each child of the original SQL text entered
Here is an odd little bug that was discussed a couple of weeks ago on the OTN forums.
It's about queries on join views by ROWID that fail with "ORA-01410: invalid ROWID" under certain circumstances. The bug can only be reproduced when using the 11.2 code base. In fact the same setup will cause an internal error in 11.1, but 10.2 will return correct results.
It's probably not a very common scenario but it is an interesting example of how features that work fine by themselves can cause problems when used together.
First of all (hopefully) some of you may ask: How is it possible to query from a join view by ROWID, since the view is based on multiple objects and hence doesn't have a simple one-to-one mapping to a ROWID of a single table?
There is a lot more to say about Dynamic Sampling and indexes, and I'll try to cover these basics in my Dynamic Sampling series on AllThingsOracle.com, but two recent discussions on the OTN forums and on Charles Hooper's blog prompted me to publish this blog post.
These discussions revolved around the following issues with Dynamic Sampling and indexes:
1. CREATE INDEX On Empty Table
This post is about a potential pitfall when migrating from 11.2.0.x to the next point release. I stumbled over problem this one on a two node cluster.
The operating system is Oracle Linux 5.5 running 18.104.22.168.3 and I wanted to go to 22.214.171.124.0. As you know, Grid Infrastructure upgrades are out-of-place, in other words require a separate Oracle home. This is also one of the reasons I wouldn’t want less than 20G on a non-lab like environment for the Grid Infrastructure mount points …
Now when you are upgrading from 11.2.0.x to 126.96.36.199 you need to apply a one-off patch, but the correct one! Search for patch number 12539000 (11203:ASM UPGRADE FAILED ON FIRST NODE WITH ORA-03113) and apply the one that matches your version-and pay attention to these PSUs! There is the obvious required opatch update to be performed before again as well.
As I have hinted at during my last post about installing Oracle 188.8.131.52 on Oracle Linux 6.1 with Kernel UEK, I have planned another article about adding a node to a cluster.
I deliberately started the installation of my RAC system with only one node to allow my moderately spec’d hardware to deal with a second cluster node. In previous versions of Oracle there was a problem with node additions: the $GRID_HOME/oui/bin/addNode.sh script did pre-requisite checks that used to fail when you had used ASMLib. Unfortuntely, due to my setup I couldn’t test if that was solved (I didn’t use ASMLib).
Installing Grid Infrastructure 184.108.40.206 on Oracle Linux 6.1
Yesterday was the big day, or the day Oracle release 220.127.116.11 for Linux x86 and x86-64. Time to download and experiment! The following assumes you have already configured RAC 11g Release 2 before, it’s not a step by step guide how to do this. I expect those to shoot out of the grass like mushrooms in the next few days, especially since the weekend allows people to do the same I did!
The Operating System
I have prepared a xen domU for 18.104.22.168, using the latest Oracle Linux 6.1 build I could find. In summary, I am using the following settings:
Configuring Oracle Linux 6.1
Installation of the operating environment is beyond the scope of this article, and it hasn’t really changed much since 5.x. All I did was to install the database server package group. I wrote this article for fans of xen-based para-virtualisation. Although initially for 6.0, it applies equally for 6.1. Here’s the xen native domU description (you can easily convert that to xenstore format using libvirt):
# cat node1.cfg name="rac11_2_0_3_ol61_node1" memory=4096 maxmem=8192 vcpus=4 on_poweroff="destroy" on_reboot="restart" on_crash="destroy" localtime=0 builder="linux" bootargs="" extra=" " disk=[ 'file:/var/lib/xen/images/rac11_2_0_3_ol61_node1/disk0,xvda,w', 'file:/var/lib/xen/images/rac11_2_0_3_ol61_node1/oracle,xvdb,w', 'file:/var/lib/xen/images/rac11_2_0_3_ol61_shared/ocr1,xvdc,w!', 'file:/var/lib/xen/images/rac11_2_0_3_ol61_shared/ocr2,xvdd,w!', 'file:/var/lib/xen/images/rac11_2_0_3_ol61_shared/ocr3,xvde,w!', 'file:/var/lib/xen/images/rac11_2_0_3_ol61_shared/data1,xvdf,w!', 'file:/var/lib/xen/images/rac11_2_0_3_ol61_shared/fra1,xvdg,w!' ] vif=[ 'mac=00:16:1e:2b:1d:ef,bridge=br1', 'mac=00:16:1e:2b:1a:e1,bridge=br2', 'mac=00:16:1e:2a:1d:1f,bridge=br3', ] bootloader = "pygrub"
Use the “xm create node1.cfg” command to start the domU. After the OS was ready I installed the following additional software to satisfy the installation requirements:
This is easiest done via yum and the public YUM server Oracle provides. It also has instructions on how to set your repository up.
# yum install compat-libcap1 compat-libstdc++-33 libstdc++-devel gcc-c++ ksh libaio-devel
On the first node only I wanted a VNC-like interface for a graphical installation. The older package vnc-server I loved from 5.x isn’t available anymore, the package you need is now called tigervnc-server. It also requires a new viewer to be downloaded from sourceforge. On the first node you might want to install these, unless you are brave enough to use a silent installation:
Ensure that SELinux and the IPTables packages are turned off. SELinux is still configured in /etc/sysconfig/selinux, where the setting has to be permissive at least. You can use “chkconfig iptables off” to disable the firewall service at boot. Check that there are no filter rules using “iptables -L”.
I created the oracle account using these usual steps-this hasn’t change since 22.214.171.124.
A few changes to /etc/sysctl.were needed; you can copy and paste the below example and append it to your existing settings. Ensure to up the limits where you have more resources!
kernel.shmall = 4294967296 kernel.shmmni = 4096 kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128 fs.file-max = 6815744 net.core.rmem_default = 262144 net.core.wmem_default = 262144 net.core.rmem_max = 4194304 net.core.wmem_max = 1048576 fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576 net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 net.ipv4.conf.eth1.rp_filter = 0 net.ipv4.conf.eth2.rp_filter = 0
Also ensure that you change the rp_filter for your private interconnect to 0 (or 2)-my devices are eth1 and eth2. This is a new requirement for reverse path filtering introduced with 126.96.36.199.
ASM “disks” must be owned by the GRID owner. The easiest way to change the permissions of the ASM disks is to create a new set of udev rules, such as the following:
# cat 61-asm.rules KERNEL=="xvd[cdefg]1", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="asmdba" MODE="0660"
After a quick “start_udev” as root these were applied.
Note that as per my domU config file I actually know the device names are persistent, so it was easy to come up with this solution. In real life you would use the dm-multipath package which allows setting the owner,group and permission now in /etc/multipath.conf for every ASM LUN.
There was an interesting problem initially in that kfod seemed to trigger a change of permissions back to root:disk whenever it ran. Changing the ownership back to oracle only lasted until the next execution of kfod. The only fix I could come up with involved the udev rules.
Good news for those who suffered from the multicast problem introduced in 188.8.131.52-cluvfy now knows about it and checks during the post hwos stage (I had already installed cvuqdisk):
[oracle@rac11203node1 grid]$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -post hwos -n rac11203node1 Performing post-checks for hardware and operating system setup Checking node reachability... Node reachability check passed from node "rac11203node1" Checking user equivalence... User equivalence check passed for user "oracle" Checking node connectivity... Checking hosts config file... Verification of the hosts config file successful Node connectivity passed for subnet "192.168.99.0" with node(s) rac11203node1 TCP connectivity check passed for subnet "192.168.99.0" Node connectivity passed for subnet "192.168.100.0" with node(s) rac11203node1 TCP connectivity check passed for subnet "192.168.100.0" Node connectivity passed for subnet "192.168.101.0" with node(s) rac11203node1 TCP connectivity check passed for subnet "192.168.101.0" Interfaces found on subnet "192.168.99.0" that are likely candidates for VIP are: rac11203node1 eth0:192.168.99.129 Interfaces found on subnet "192.168.100.0" that are likely candidates for a private interconnect are: rac11203node1 eth1:192.168.100.129 Interfaces found on subnet "192.168.101.0" that are likely candidates for a private interconnect are: rac11203node1 eth2:192.168.101.129 Node connectivity check passed Checking multicast communication... Checking subnet "192.168.99.0" for multicast communication with multicast group "184.108.40.206"... Check of subnet "192.168.99.0" for multicast communication with multicast group "220.127.116.11" passed. Checking subnet "192.168.100.0" for multicast communication with multicast group "18.104.22.168"... Check of subnet "192.168.100.0" for multicast communication with multicast group "22.214.171.124" passed. Checking subnet "192.168.101.0" for multicast communication with multicast group "126.96.36.199"... Check of subnet "192.168.101.0" for multicast communication with multicast group "188.8.131.52" passed. Check of multicast communication passed. Check for multiple users with UID value 0 passed Time zone consistency check passed Checking shared storage accessibility... Disk Sharing Nodes (1 in count) ------------------------------------ ------------------------ /dev/xvda rac11203node1 /dev/xvdb rac11203node1 /dev/xvdc rac11203node1 /dev/xvdd rac11203node1 /dev/xvde rac11203node1 /dev/xvdf rac11203node1 /dev/xvdg rac11203node1 Shared storage check was successful on nodes "rac11203node1" Post-check for hardware and operating system setup was successful.
As always, I tried to fix as many problems before invoking runInstaller as possible. The “-fixup” option to runcluvfy is again very useful. I strongly recommend running the fixup script prior to executing the OUI binary.
The old trick to remove /etc/ntp.conf causes the NTP check to complete ok, in which case you are getting the ctsd service for time synchronisation. You should not do this in production-consistent times in the cluster are paramount!
I encountered an issue with the check for free space later in the installation during my first attemps. OUI wants 7.5G for GRID_HOME, even though the installation “only” took around 3 in the end. I exported TMP and TEMP to point to my 10G mount point to avoid this warning:
$ export TEMP=/u01/crs/temp $ export TMP=/u01/crs/temp $ ./runInstaller
The installation procedure for Grid Infrastructure 184.108.40.206 is almost exactly the same as for 220.127.116.11, except for the option to change the AU size for the initial disk group you create:
Once you have completed the wizard, it’s time to hit the “install” button. The magic again happens in the root.sh file, or rootupgrade.sh if you are upgrading. I included the root.sh output so you have something to compare against:
Performing root user operation for Oracle 11g The following environment variables are set as: ORACLE_OWNER= oracle ORACLE_HOME= /u01/crs/18.104.22.168 Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]: Creating y directory... Copying dbhome to y ... Copying oraenv to y ... Copying coraenv to y ... Creating /etc/oratab file... Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created Finished running generic part of root script. Now product-specific root actions will be performed. Using configuration parameter file: /u01/crs/22.214.171.124/crs/install/crsconfig_params Creating trace directory User ignored Prerequisites during installation OLR initialization - successful root wallet root wallet cert root cert export peer wallet profile reader wallet pa wallet peer wallet keys pa wallet keys peer cert request pa cert request peer cert pa cert peer root cert TP profile reader root cert TP pa root cert TP peer pa cert TP pa peer cert TP profile reader pa cert TP profile reader peer cert TP peer user cert pa user cert Adding Clusterware entries to upstart CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.mdnsd' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.mdnsd' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.gpnpd' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.gpnpd' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.gipcd' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.gipcd' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.cssd' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.diskmon' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.diskmon' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.cssd' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded ASM created and started successfully. Disk Group OCR created successfully. clscfg: -install mode specified Successfully accumulated necessary OCR keys. Creating OCR keys for user 'root', privgrp 'root'.. Operation successful. CRS-4256: Updating the profile Successful addition of voting disk 1621f2201ab94f32bf613b17f62982b0. Successful addition of voting disk 337a3f0b8a2d4f7ebff85594e4a8d3cd. Successful addition of voting disk 3ae328cce2b94f3bbfe37b0948362993. Successfully replaced voting disk group with +OCR. CRS-4256: Updating the profile CRS-4266: Voting file(s) successfully replaced ## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group -- ----- ----------------- --------- --------- 1. ONLINE 1621f2201ab94f32bf613b17f62982b0 (/dev/xvdc1) [OCR] 2. ONLINE 337a3f0b8a2d4f7ebff85594e4a8d3cd (/dev/xvdd1) [OCR] 3. ONLINE 3ae328cce2b94f3bbfe37b0948362993 (/dev/xvde1) [OCR] Located 3 voting disk(s). CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.asm' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.asm' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.OCR.dg' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.OCR.dg' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.registry.acfs' on 'rac11203node1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.registry.acfs' on 'rac11203node1' succeeded Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster ... succeeded
That’s it! After returning to the OUI screen you run the remaing assistants and finally are rewarded with the success message:
Better still, I could now log in to SQL*Plus and was rewarded with the new version:
$ sqlplus / as sysasm SQL*Plus: Release 126.96.36.199.0 Production on Sat Sep 24 22:29:45 2011 Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved. Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 188.8.131.52.0 - 64bit Production With the Real Application Clusters and Automatic Storage Management options SQL> select * from v$version; BANNER -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 184.108.40.206.0 - 64bit Production PL/SQL Release 220.127.116.11.0 - Production CORE 18.104.22.168.0 Production TNS for Linux: Version 22.214.171.124.0 - Production NLSRTL Version 126.96.36.199.0 - Production SQL>
You might remark that in the output there has only ever been one node referenced. That is correct-my lab box has limited resources and I’d like to test the addNode.sh script for each new release so please be patient! I’m planning an article about upgrading to 188.8.131.52 soon, as well as the addition of a node. One thing I noticed was the abnormally high CPU usage for the CSSD processes: ocssd.bin, cssdagent and cssdmonitor-something I find alarming at the moment.
top - 22:53:19 up 1:57, 5 users, load average: 5.41, 4.03, 3.77 Tasks: 192 total, 1 running, 191 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 0.2%sy, 0.0%ni, 99.5%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st Mem: 4102536k total, 3500784k used, 601752k free, 59792k buffers Swap: 1048568k total, 4336k used, 1044232k free, 2273908k cached PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND 27646 oracle RT 0 1607m 119m 53m S 152.0 3.0 48:57.35 /u01/crs/184.108.40.206/bin/ocssd.bin 27634 root RT 0 954m 93m 55m S 146.0 2.3 31:45.50 /u01/crs/220.127.116.11/bin/cssdagent 27613 root RT 0 888m 91m 55m S 96.6 2.3 5124095h /u01/crs/18.104.22.168/bin/cssdmonitor 28110 oracle -2 0 485m 14m 12m S 1.3 0.4 0:34.65 asm_vktm_+ASM1 28126 oracle -2 0 499m 28m 15m S 0.3 0.7 0:04.52 asm_lms0_+ASM1 28411 root RT 0 500m 144m 59m S 0.3 3.6 5124095h /u01/crs/22.214.171.124/bin/ologgerd -M -d /u01/crs/126.96.36.199/crf/db/rac11203node1 32394 oracle 20 0 15020 1300 932 R 0.3 0.0 5124095h top 1 root 20 0 19336 1476 1212 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.41 /sbin/init ...
188.8.131.52 certainly didn’t use that much CPU across 4 cores…
Update: I have just repeated the same installation on VirtualBox 4.1.2 with less potent hardware, and funny enough the CPU problem has disappeared. How is that possible? I need to understand more, and maybe update the XEN host to something more recent.