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12cR2

AWR: Multitenant-Specific Initialization Parameters

By default, the database engine automatically takes snapshots in the root container only. Such snapshots cover the root container as well as all open PDBs belonging to it. From version 12.2 onward, you can control whether the database engine automatically takes also PDB-level snapshots through the dynamic initialization parameter AWR_PDB_AUTOFLUSH_ENABLED. In case you want to enable that feature, you have to carry out two operations:

  • Set the initialization parameter AWR_PDB_AUTOFLUSH_ENABLED to TRUE (the default value is FALSE) either in a specific PDB or, if you want to enable it for all PDBs, in the root container.
  • Set the snapshot interval at the PDB level.

Note that to enable automatic PDB-level snapshots it’s necessary to set the snapshot interval because the PDB-level default is 40,150 days! Hence, if you don’t change it, the database engine will never take them.

AWR Flush Levels

From version 12.1.0.2 onward, for taking AWR snapshots, you have the choice between four AWR flush levels: BESTFIT, LITE, TYPICAL and ALL. If you check the Oracle Database documentation, you won’t find much information about the difference between them. The best you will find, in the PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, is the following:

The flush level can be one of the following:

Oracle 12c – global partial index

By Franck Pachot

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We have an incredible number of possibilities with Oracle. Yes, an index can be global (indexing many partitions without having to be partitioned itself on the same key) and partial (skipping some of the table partitions where we don’t need indexing). In the previous post of this series of small examples on recent features I partitioned a table, with covid-19 cases per day and per country, partitioned on range of date by interval. The index on the country code (GEOID) was not very efficient for data ingested per day, because countries are scattered through all the table. And then I have reorganized the old partitions to cluster them on countries.

My global index on country code is defined as:

Oracle 12c – reorg and split table with clustering

By Franck Pachot

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In this series of small examples on recent features, I have imported in a previous post, the statistics of covid-19 per day and per countries. This is typical of data that comes as a time-series ordered by date, because this is how it is generated day after day, but where you probably want to query from another dimension, like per countries.

Oracle 12c – peak detection with MATCH_RECOGNIZE

By Franck Pachot

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This post is part of a series of small examples of recent features. I’m running this in the Oracle 20c preview in the Oracle Cloud. I’ll show a very basic example of “Row Pattern Recognition” (the MATCH_RECOGNIZE clause in a SELECT which is documented as “row pattern matching in native SQL” feature by Oracle”). You may be afraid of those names. Of course, because SQL is a declarative language there is a small learning curve to get beyond this abstraction. Understanding procedurally how it works may help. But when you understand the declarative nature it is really powerful. This post is there to start simple on a simple table with time series where I just want to detect peaks (the points where the value goes up and then down).

Oracle 12c – pre-built join index

By Franck Pachot

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This post is part of a series of small examples of recent features. I’m running this in the Oracle 20c preview in the Oracle Cloud. I have created a few tables in the previous post with a mini-snowflake scheme: a fact table CASES with the covid-19 cases per country and day. And a dimension hierarchy for the country with COUNTRIES and CONTINENTS tables.

New Parallel Distribution Method For Direct Path Loads

Starting with version 12c Oracle obviously has introduced another parallel distribution method for direct path loads (applicable to INSERT APPEND and CTAS operations) when dealing with partitioned objects.

As you might already know, starting with version 11.2 Oracle supported a new variation of the PQ_DISTRIBUTE hint allowing more control how data gets distributed for the actual DML load step. In addition to the already documented methods (NONE, RANDOM / RANDOM_LOCAL, PARTITION) there is a new one EQUIPART which obviously only applies to scenarios where both, source and target table are equi partitioned.

12.2.0.1 And Later Support (Limited) Extended Stats On Virtual columns / Column Groups of Expressions

I do have a demo as part of my optimizer related workshops that shows the restriction / limitation of DBMS_STATS not supporting extended statistics on virtual columns / group of expressions, so for example the combination of both expressions and column groups, like ((TRUNC(COL1)), (TRUNC(COL2))).

Surprisingly, when following a certain sequence of operation, this starts working (to some degree) from 12.2.0.1 on.

Single Value Column Frequency Histogram Oracle 12c and later

It is hopefully in the meantime well known that Oracle has introduced in version 11g a new algorithm to gather statistics on a table that no longer requires sorting for determining the critical Number Of Distinct Values (NDV) figure - it instead uses a clever "approximate NDV" algorithm which always reads 100% of the table data and therefore in principle generates very accurate statistics. This new algorithm gets used only when the ESTIMATE_PERCENT parameter to the DBMS_STATS.GATHER*STATS calls is left at default or explicitly passed as "DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE". This new algorithm is also required in case other new features like "Incremental Statistics" should be used.

In 12c Oracle improved this algorithm allowing the generation of Frequency and the new Top Frequency histogram types in a single pass. The new Hybrid histogram type still requires a separate pass.