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constraints

Take care with regular expressions

In an Office Hours session a couple of months back, I covered an important change that comes to regular expressions once you upgrade to 12c Release 2. You can see the video covering the issue here:

but for the TL;DR brigade reading this post: Regular expressions are not deterministic when you take NLS settings into account and thus cannot be used in constraints and/or function-based indexes.

This is just a post to quickly revisit the topic for anyone thinking of upgrading from an earlier release to 12c Release 2. An AskTOM question came in asking what would happen to such constraints during the upgrade process.

Validate FK

A comment arrived yesterday on an earlier posting about an enhancement to the truncate command in 12c that raised the topic of what Oracle might do to validate a foreign key constraint. Despite being sure I had the answer written down somewhere (maybe on a client site or in a report to a client) I couldn’t find anything I’d published about it, so I ran up a quick demo script to show that all Oracle does is construct a simple SQL statement that will do check the data – and then do whatever the optimizer does to produce the fastest possible plan.

Here’s the script – with a few variations to show what happens if you start tweaking features to change the plan.

DDL for constraints – subtle things

The DBMS_METADATA package is very cool. I remember the days of either hand-crafting DDL statements based on queries to the data dictionary, or many a DBA will be familiar with running “imp show=y” or “imp indexfile=…” in order to then laboriously extract the DDL required from the import log file.  DBMS_METADATA removed all of those annoyances to give us a simple API to get the true and complete DDL for a database object.

But when extracting DDL from the database using the DBMS_METADATA package, you need to be aware of some subtleties especially if you plan on executing that DDL in the database.

The simplest things….can be risky

Java and Oracle expert Lukas Eder tweeted yesterday about a potential optimization that could be done when reviewing database SQL code.

image

NULL’s vs NOT NULL’s and Performance

When it comes to giving the cost based optimiser the best possible chance to make the “right” decisions, many DBA’s are diligent in keeping statistics up to date, using histograms where appropriate, creating more indexes (or removing surplus indexes).

However one often neglected area is that the the null-ness of columns also impacts the optimiser decisions. NULL and NOT NULL do more than just act as constraints, they also add (or detract) to the value of indexes on those columns. Here’s an example of how the null-ness of a column impacts optimizer decisions. I have a table T which is a copy of DBA_OBJECTS, indexed on OBJECT_ID.

Duplicate constraints are impossible right ?

Here’s a very simple example of a table called PARENT being a (surprise surprise) parent in a referential integrity relationship to a (drum roll for my choice of name) CHILD table


SQL> create table parent ( p int, constraint PAR_PK primary key (p) );

Table created.

SQL> create table child ( c int,
  2        p int
  3      );

Table created.

SQL> alter table child add constraint fk1 foreign key ( p ) references parent ( p );

Table altered.

That is all as we would expect, and similarly, if I inadvertently try to add the same foreign key constraint, I’ll get an error

Enabling constraint in parallel

Recently I did some tuning of data generation scripts, which purpose is to build large amount of representative data for application testing. Direct-path inserts are in use and as a prerequisite all constraints and indexes on target tables are disabled before the load and are enabled after it. Since I wanted to utilize available resources on the machine for that task, almost each step uses parallel execution. Well, kind of almost, because enabling constraints didn’t run in parallel, although I’ve politely asked Oracle to do so. I’ll explain here why it didn’t work.