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covering

Covering indexes in Oracle, and branch size

A covering index is an index that contains all the columns required by your query, so that you don’t have to do a TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID, which is the major cost of an index range scan. You don’t need any special feature to do that in Oracle. Just add the required columns at the end of the index. In the execution plan you will see the columns used as index keys for the range scan displayed in ‘access’ predicates, and the further filtering done on the remaining columns with ‘filter’ predicates. The ‘projection’ shows the columns that are returned in the rowset result.
However you may have seen that SQL Server has a special ‘INCLUDING’ keyword to separate those non-key columns added only for filtering or projection but not for access. What does it bring that Oracle doesn’t have?