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HAVING Cardinality

When performing aggregate GROUP BY operations an additional filter on the aggregates can be applied using the HAVING clause.Usually aggregates are one of the last steps executed before the final result set is returned to the client.However there are various reasons, why a GROUP BY operation might be somewhere in the middle of the execution plan operation, for example it might be part of a view that cannot be merged (or was hinted not to be merged using the NO_MERGE hint), or in the more recent releases (11g+) the optimizer decided to use the GROUP BY PLACEMENT transformation that deliberately can move the GROUP BY operation to a different execution step of the plan.In such cases, when the GROUP BY operation will be input to some other operation, it becomes essential for the overall efficiency of the execution plan preferred by the optimizer that the cardinality estimates are in the right ballpark, as it will influe