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Oracle Exadata

How to Troubleshoot OEM 12c Cloud Control Auto-Discovery

I was recently involved in an upgrade project to go from 11.2.0.2 to 11.2.0.3 on an Exadata V2. We hit some snags during the upgrade specifically related to OEM 12c Cloud Control. We performed an out-of-place upgrade and OEM 12.1.0.1.0 had some difficulty in dealing with this.

12c Cloud Control is supposed to run a daily check that looks for new targets on each server. When it finds something new, it places this in a queue to wait for admin approval. With a single click, you can promote the newly discovered target to an OEM managed object.

Set Up Exadata for Cloud Control 12.1.0.2

I recently helped set up an Exadata X2-8 Database Machine with the latest version of OEM Cloud Countrol (12.1.0.2). A few documents do exist for this process – the most useful of which are the Exadata Discovery Cookbook and the Setup Automation Kit. However, I found a few inconsistencies and problems; I think the existing documents I found were written on older versions of OEM and older versions of the tools. Also, there are some additional steps for older Exadatas which didn’t apply to my case.

Adaptive Log File Sync: Oracle, Please Don’t Do That Again

Disclaimer: Much of what follows is pure speculation on my part. It could be completely wrong, and I’m putting it out there in the hopes that it’ll eventually be proven one way or the other.

Alex Gorbachev Presenting at TOUG’s DD Day on 28-Oct-2011 in Toronto

While Oracle OpenWorld is still hot in our memories, I’m going to be presenting two of my OOW11 sessions at the Toronto Oracle User Group’s DD Day 2011 on 28-Oct-2011 — in just a bit over 2 weeks. Last time I presented for TOUG at their summer meeting in 2008 which makes it a tad [...]

Oracle Big Data Appliance — Oracle’s Bold Move Into Big Data Space

Oracle Big Data Appliance (BDA) is being announced at the Oracle OpenWorld keynote as I’m posting this. It will take some time for it to be actually available for shipment and some details will likely change but here is what we have so far about Oracle Big Data Appliance. A rack with InfiniBand, full of [...]

Oracle Big Data Appliance — What’s Cooking?

Many analysts are suggesting that a big data appliance will be announced at this OOW. Based on published Oracle OpenWorld focus sessions on oracle.com (PDF documents), the following technologies will most likely be the key — Hadoop, NoSQL, Hadoop data loader for Oracle, R Language. Want more details — you have to wait for them. [...]

Oracle Database Appliance — What Does It Mean for You and Your Business?

When I first heard about Oracle Database Appliance and what it does, I got really excited — I saw great potential in this product. When we got our hands dirty and started testing the appliance, I become confident that this product will be a hit. Now it’s finally the time when I can share my [...]

Oracle Exadata vs SAP HANA

Before I left on vacation (now almost a month ago – can’t remember when I had such a long vacation if I ever had), Mark Fontecchio organized a short video conference between myself and John Appleby. The idea was to compare Oracle Exadata with SAP HANA in a shot video discussion. Unfortunately, video part didn’t [...]

Consolidation Is All About Costs

Back in February, Jonathan Gennick asked me if I would be interested in writing a bit of content for an APRESS brochure to distribute at RMOUG Training Days. I thought it was a cool idea and chose the topic of database consolidation. I only needed 10 short tips but when I started to write, it was difficult to stop — clearly, expressing ideas in concise way must not be my strength.

Jonathan did heavy edits and turned my draft into 10 brief tips and, of course, quite a few details had to go as we shrank the size 3-4 times. Since I’ve already put my efforts into writing, I figured I could share it as well on my blog. Thus, welcome the first blog post from the series of database consolidation tips. Let’s get down to business…

While there are often multiple goals of a consolidation project, the main purpose of consolidation is to optimize costs which usually means minimizing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of data infrastructure. Your current hardware might be past end of life, you might lack capacity for growth, your change management might be too slow, etc.

These non-core goals (for the lack of a better term for side effects of consolidation projects) can play a role of timing triggers but success of a consolidation project is defined by cost metrics. In real-life there are very few pure consolidation projects as project success criteria usually contain other conditions than cost cutting.

Tip: Keep costs at the heart of the consolidation project but don’t get blinded by cost alone! It’s a total failure if a consolidation project delivers a platform with much lower TCO but is unable to support the required availability and performance SLAs.

It’s also not very popular to run a purely cost-cutting project in a company — people are not overly motivated especially if it endangers their jobs. Luckily, most healthy businesses have quickly growing IT requirements and consolidation projects very quickly bust out of the scope of just cost savings.

Tip: Get your success criteria right and keep cost optimization as the core goal. If required, reduce the scope and split projects into stages where each stage has it’s own core goal. This way, you can classify some stages as purely consolidation. It’s so much easier to achieve success if there are only few criteria. You could also check mark success boxes constantly as you go instead of trying to get to the light at the end of the tunnel that could take years.

If you have anything to share on the scope of consolidation projects — whether past experience or current challenges — please, comment away.

Oracle Exadata Database Machine v2 vs x2-2 vs x2-8 Deathmatch

This post has bee updated live from the Oracle OpenWorld as I’m learning what’s new. Last update done on 28-Sep-2010.

Oracle Exadata v2 has been transformed into x2-2 and x2-8. x2-2 is just slightly updated while x2-8 is a much more high-end platform. Please note that Exadata x2-2 is not just an old Exadata v2 — it’s a fully refreshed model. This is a huge confusion here at the OOW and even at the Oracle web site.

The new Exadata pricing list is released and Exadata x2-2 costs exactly the same as old Exadata v2. Exadata x2-8 Full Rack (that’s the only x2-8 configuration — see below why) is priced 50% higher then Full Rack x2-2. This is hardware price only to clarify the confusion (updated 18-Oct-2010).

Exadata Storage Server Software pricing is the same and licensing costs per storage server and per full rack is the same as for Exadata v2 because number of disks didn’t change. Note that storage cells got upgraded but priced the same when it comes to Exadata Server software and hardware. Nice touch but see implications on databases licensing below.

This comparison is for Full-Rack models Exadata x2-2 and x2-8 and existing v2 model.

Finally, data-sheets are available for both x2-2 (Thx Dan Norris for the pointers):

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/exadata/dbmachine-x2-2-datash...

and x2-8:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/exadata/dbmachine-x2-8-datash...

It means that live update of this post is probably over (27-Sep-2010).

v2 Full Rack x2-2 Full Rack x2-8 Full Rack
Database servers 8 x Sun Fire x4170 1U 8 x Sun Fire x4170 M2 1U 2 x Sun Fire x4800 5U
Database CPUs Xeon E5540 quad core 2.53GHz Xeon X5670 six cores 2.93GHz Xeon X7560 eight cores 2.26GHz
database cores 64 96 128
database RAM 576GB 768GB 2TB
Storage cells 14 x SunFire X4275 14 x SunFire X4270 M2 14 x SunFire X4270 M2
storage cell CPUs Xeon E5540 quad core 2.53GHz Xeon L5640 six cores 2.26GHz Xeon L5640 six cores 2.26GHz
storage cells CPU cores 112 168 168
IO performance & capacity 15K RPM 600GB SAS or 2TB SATA 7.2K RPM disks 15K RPM 600GB SAS (HP model – high performance) or 2TB SAS 7.2K RPM disks (HC model – high capacity)
Note that 2TB SAS are the same old 2 TB drives with new SAS electronics. (Thanks Kevin Closson for ref)
15K RPM 600GB SAS (HP model – high performance) or 2TB SAS 7.2K RPM disks (HC model – high capacity)
Note that 2TB SAS are the same old 2 TB drives with new SAS electronics. (Thanks Kevin Closson for ref)
Flash Cache 5.3TB 5.3TB 5.3TB
Database Servers networking 4 x 1GbE x 8 servers = 32 x 1GbE 4 x 1GbE x 8 servers + 2 x 10GbE x 8 servers = 32 x 1Gb + 16 x 10GbEE 8 x 1GbE x 2 servers + 8 x 10GbE x 2 servers = 16 x 1Gb + 16 x 10GbEE
InfiniBand Switches QDR 40Gbit/s wire QDR 40Gbit/s wire QDR 40Gbit/s wire
InfiniBand ports on database servers (total) 2 ports x 8 servers = 16 ports 2 ports x 8 servers = 16 ports 8 ports x 2 servers = 16 ports
Database Servers OS Oracle Linux only Oracle Linux (possible Solaris later, still unclear) Oracle Linux or Solaris x86


x2-8 has fewer but way bigger database servers. That means that x2-8 will scale better with the less RAC overhead for the databases. The bad news is that if one database server fails or down for maintenance, 50% of capacity is gone. What does that mean? It means that Exadata x2-8 is designed more for multi-rack deployments so that you can go beyond “simple” 2 node RAC. Some folks argue that two node RAC is less reliable for evictions and etc but you probably don’t know that Exadata has special IO fencing mechanism that makes it much more reliable.

Because there is 4 times more RAM in Exadata x2-8, more and more operations can be done fully in memory without even going to storage cells. This is why boost in number of cores / CPU performance is important — since InfniBand bandwidth stays the same, you need some other way to access more data so having more data on buffer cache will keep more CPU cores busy.

With Exadata x2-2, processing capacity on database servers increased and RAM increase is insignificant. So how does it impact “well-balanced” Exadata v2? Well, if more and more operations are offloaded to storage cells then database servers could have more “useful” data pumped in over InfniBand and actually spend CPU cycles processing the data rather then filtering it. With Exadata v2, depending on the compression level, CPU was often a bottleneck on data loads so having some more CPU capacity on database tiers won’t harm.

Old configuration v2 will not be available so be ready to spend more on Oracle database licenses unless you are licensed under ULA or something.

Both Exadata x2-8 and x2-2 will run updated Oracle Linux 5.5 with Oracle Enterprise Kernel. x2-8 can also run Solaris x86 on database servers as expected. This confirms my assumption that if Oracle adds Solaris x86 into Exadata, it will prove that Oracle is fully committed to Solaris Operating System. A rather pleasant news to me! However, Solaris 11 Express is not available right now and probably will be available towards the end of this calendar year.

If you look at x2-2 and x2-8 side by side physically, you will see that four 1U databases servers of x2-2 basically replaced by one 5U database server in x2-8 in terms of space capacity. There are also more internal disks in those bigger servers and more power supplies so they are more redundant.

More processing power on storage servers in x2-8 and x2-2 (not dramatically more but definitely noticeable) will speed up smart scans accessing data compressed with high level. As more and more operations can be uploaded to the storage cells, boost in CPU capacity there is quite handy. Note that this doesn’t impact licensing in any way — Exadata Storage Server Software is using number of physical disk spindles as the licensing metric.

Regarding claims of the full database encryption — need to understand how it works and what are the improvements. Oracle Transparent Data Encryption was available on Exadata v2 but had many limitations when using with other Exadata features. I assume that Exadata x2-x addresses those but need to follow up on details so stay tuned. I believe that customers of Exadata v2 will be able to take advantage of all new Exadata software features – the platform architecture hasn’t changed.