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Parallel Execution

Parallel Plans

This article was prompted by a pair of articles by Yasin Baskan of Oracle Corporation: PX Server Sets etc. and Multiple Parallelizers, plus a little extra prompting from a mistake that I made when reading the second of those two articles. The fact that I made a mistake is significant because, without it, I wouldn’t have created a model to check Yasin’s description of the parallel activity.

I want to examine the following query to find out the order of activity:

12c Parallel Execution New Features: Parallel FILTER Subquery Evaluation - Part 2: Distribution Methods

Picking up from the first part of this instalment I'll focus in this post on the available distribution methods for the new parallel FILTER subquery feature.In this post I won't go into the details how the optimizer selects the distribution method automatically - this will be covered in the last part.Here I merely describe the different available methods and how to control them using the new PQ_FILTER hint, which is also mentioned in the official documentation, although I find a bit hard to follow the description there.There are four different options available to the PQ_FILTER hint, and only two of them actually describe a distribution method.

Parallel Projection

A recent case at a client reminded me of something that isn't really new but not so well known - Oracle by default performs evaluation at the latest possible point in the execution plan.So if you happen to have expressions in the projection of a simple SQL statement that runs parallel it might be counter-intuitive that by default Oracle won't evaluate the projection in the Parallel Slaves but in the Query Coordinator - even if it was technically possible - because the latest possible point is the SELECT operation with the ID = 0 of the plan, which is always performed by the Query Coordinator.Of course, if you make use of expressions that can't be evaluated in parallel or aren't implemented for parallel evaluation, then there is no other choice than doing this in the Query Coordinator.The specific case in question was a generic expo

12c Parallel Execution New Features: Parallel FILTER Subquery Evaluation - Part 1: Introduction

12c introduces another interesting new Parallel Execution feature - the parallel evaluation of FILTER subqueries. In pre-12c FILTER subqueries always had to be evaluated in the Query Coordinator. This had several consequences, in particular the data driving the FILTER subquery always had to flow through the Query Coordinator, and hence represented a forced serial execution part of a parallel execution plan. This limitation also meant that depending on the overall plan shape the parallel plan was possibly decomposed into multiple DFO trees, leading to other side effects I've outlined in some of my other publications already.In 12c now the FILTER subquery can be evaluated in the Parallel Slaves, and the driving data no longer needs to be processed in the Query Coordinator. However, the resulting plan shape can be a little bit confusing.

PQ Index anomaly

Here’s an oddity prompted by a question that appeared on Oracle-L last night. The question was basically – “Why can’t I build an index in parallel when it’s single column with most of the rows set to null and only a couple of values for the non-null entries”.

That’s an interesting question, since the description of the index shouldn’t produce any reason for anything to go wrong, so I spent a few minutes on trying to emulate the problem. I created a table with 10M rows and a column that was 3% ‘Y’ and 0.1% ‘N’, then created and dropped an index in parallel in parallel a few times. The report I used to prove that the index build had run  parallel build showed an interesting waste of resources. Here’s the code to build the table and index:

12c Parallel Execution New Features: 1 SLAVE distribution

When certain SQL features get used in pre-12c versions that force non-parallel evaluation, like using ROWNUM or certain Analytic Functions like LAG/LEAD, then - depending on the overall plan shape - Oracle can start to decompose the parallel execution plan into several so called DFO trees (If you want learn more about DFO trees and DFOs I recommend watching my online tutorial on my Youtube channel).Now having multiple DFO trees in a single parallel execution plan comes with several side effects that are confusing and complicate matters unnecessarily, like each DFO tree allocates its own PX slave set(s), and so each one can potenially end up with a different DOP, which means you can have more than one DOP in a single parallel execution plan.Depending on the overall plan shape this might also mean that a DFO tree can get started multiple t

12c Parallel Execution New Features: PX SELECTOR

Continuing my series on new 12c Parallel Execution features: I've already mentioned the new PX SELECTOR operator as part of the new Concurrent UNION ALL feature where it plays a key role.

Parallel Query

According to the Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide (10g version and 11g version):

A SELECT statement can be executed in parallel only if the following conditions are satisfied:

Parallel Execution

This is another little reference list I should have created some time ago. It covers a series of posts on interpreting parallel execution plans and understanding where the work happens.

DOAG Expertenseminar "Parallel Execution Masterclass" (German)

In zwei Wochen findet das Expertenseminar "Parallel Execution Masterclass" in Berlin statt, das ich gemeinsam mit der DOAG veranstalte.

Es sind noch ein paar Plätze frei - sollten Sie also Lust und Zeit haben, nach Berlin zu kommen und exklusives Wissen (nicht nur) über das Parallel Execution Feature der Oracle Datenbank zu erfahren, würde ich mich sehr freuen, Sie dort mit den anderen Teilnehmern begrüßen zu dürfen, um gemeinsam mit Ihnen eine gute und produktive Zeit zu verbringen!

Bei Interesse wenden Sie sich bitte an die Ansprechpartner der DOAG, die im Link angegeben sind - dort finden Sie auch eine genauere Beschreibung des Seminars.