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PL/SQL

TABLE Operator with Locally Defined Types

postit-missed-itIn my OUG Ireland 2016 – Summary post I mentioned the Oren Nakdimon session called “Write Less (Code) with More (Oracle 12c New Features)”. One of the things he mentioned was the removal of restrictions associated with the use of the TABLE operator on local table types. If I had read about this or seen it before, it had certainly slipped my mind, so I made a note to write something about it and add a link to it from my PL/SQL new features article. So here it is.

Also Extensions Created Because of SQL Plan Directives Can Invalidate Packages – Take Two

In a previous post I described a situation where the creation of an extension, independently of whether it’s carried out manually by a person or automatically by the database engine, can lead to the invalidation of PL/SQL objects. In this second post on that subject, I describe, with the help of an example (I love examples!) based on the extension_invalidate_pkg_remote.sql script, what can happen when the table on which the extension is created is stored in a remote database.

Let’s start by creating the required objects. Notice that all objects are local but, because the package body references the table through a database link that points to the very same schema owning all other objects, the database engine considers it a remote table.

Getting Your Transaction SCN – USERENV(COMMITSCN)

A few days ago I was introduced (or re-introduced) to USERENV(‘COMMITSCN’) by Jonathan Lewis. This is an internal function that allows limited access to the SCN of your transaction.

I was trying to find a way to get the actual commit SCN easily as it struck me that Oracle would have it to hand somewhere and it would be unique to the change and generated very efficiently. I could not find anything to do it so I asked Jonathan and he pointed me straight to this post he did about it a while back. What a nice chap. However, the post is from 1999 (last CENTURY!) so I thought I should just check it out first…

PL/SQL Formatting : More pearls of wisdom from Bryn

glasses-272399_1280-smallAnother topic of conversation that came out of Bryn‘s session at Oracle Midlands related to PL/SQL code formatting. I’m not sure I agree 100% with his opinion, but it’s certainly making me think about my current stance.

Preventing PL/SQL name clashes. You learn something new every day!

glasses-272399_1280-smallI mentioned in yesterday’s Oracle Midlands post, Bryn had an example of some syntax I had not seen in 20+ years of PL/SQL development.

You tend to name PL/SQL parameters and variables in such a way as to prevent name clashes with table columns. Let’s cause an obvious name clash…

The table DUAL has a column called DUMMY with a single row with the value ‘X’.

Pragma UDF – Some Current Limitations

There are currently some limitations to when pragma UDF will speed up your calls to PL/SQL functions from SQL.

In my post introducing the new pragma UDF feature of Oracle 12c I explained how it can be used to reduce the impact of context switching when you call a PL/SQL function from SQL.

In my example I showed how running a SQL-only SELECT statement that formatted a name for display over 100,000 records took 0.03 seconds went up to 0.33 seconds when the formatting SQL was put in a user defined PL/SQL function. This impact on performance is a shame as it is so beneficial to encapsulate business logic in one single place with PL/SQL. Stating that the PL/SQL function is a user defined one with the pragma UDF option reduced the run time to 0.08 seconds – which is removing most of the context switching overhead. Check out the prior post for full details.

Pragma UDF – Speeding Up your PL/SQL Functions Called From SQL

A new feature for PL/SQL was introduced in V12, pragma UDF. UDF stands for User Defined Functions. It can speed up any SQL you have that uses PL/SQL functions you created yourself.

{please see this second post on some limitations of pragma UDF in respect of IN & RETURN data types and parameter defaults}.

We can create our own functions in PL/SQL and they can be called from both PL/SQL and SQL. This has been possible since V7.3 and is used extensively by some sites to extend the capabilities of the database and encapsulate business logic.

PL/SQL bug with DBMS_RANDOM?

I think I’ve found an (admittedly obscure) bug with DBMS_RANDOM, group functions, PL/SQL and/or SQL.

Have a look and see if you also think this is odd – or have I missed the totally obvious?

(This is all on 12.1.0.2)

{Update – my conclusion is, and thanks to Joel and Sayan for their comments, that this is not a “bug”. Oracle do not promise us how PL/SQL functions are executed due to the way SQL can be re-written by the parser. I think most of us stumbling over something like this would treat it as a bug though. You have to look at the column projection, again see the comments, to see how Oracle is deciding to get the columns derived by a naked call to DBMS_RANDOM.VALUE (by naked I mean no inclusion of parameters passed in and, significantly, no reference to columns). It’s just the way it is}

NYOUG July 2015 Session on Tracing and Profiling

Many thanks to all those came to attend my two sessions "The Art and Craft of Tracing" and "Profiling for Performance in PL/SQL" at New York Oracle Users Group meeting on July 29th. Here you can download the presentations as well as the scripts I used for the demos.

Presentation: Tracing
Presentation: Profiling
Scripts for both Tracing and Profiling sessions.(ZIP file)

As always, your feedback will be highly appreciated. Do write to me about what you liked, or didn't like and how it helped you at work.

STANDARD date considerations in Oracle SQL and PL/SQL

Most of us know that the Oracle DATE datatype has upper and lower limits. From the Oracle 11g Database Concepts manual:

Oracle Database can store dates in the Julian era, ranging from January 1, 4712 BCE through December 31, 9999 CE (Common Era, or ‘AD’). Unless BCE (‘BC’ in the format mask) is specifically used, CE date entries are the default.

I never believe 100% anything I read, so I’ll try that. I’ll set my session to show dates with the AD/BC indicator and step back in time: