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Subquery with OR

Prompted by a pingback on this post, followed in very short order by a related question (with a most gratifying result) on Oracle-L, I decided to write up a note about another little optimizer enhancement that appeared in 12c. Here’s a query that differs slightly from the query in the original article:

Costing Bug

It’s amazing how you can find little bugs (or anomalies) as soon as you start to look closely at how things work in Oracle. I started to write an article for All Things Oracle last night about execution plans with subqueries, so wrote a little script to generate some sample data, set up the first sample query, checked the execution plan, and stopped because the final cost didn’t make sense. Before going on I should point out that this probably doesn’t matter and probably wouldn’t cause a change in the execution plan if the calculation were corrected – but it is just an interesting indication of the odd things that can happen when sections of modular code are combined in an open-ended way. Here’s the query (running on 11.2.0.4) with execution plan:

12c fixed subquery

Here’s a simple little demonstration of an enhancement to the optimizer in 12c that may result in some interesting changes in execution plans as cardinality estimates change from “guesses” to accurate estimates.

Unnest Oddity

Here’s a little oddity I came across in 11.2.0.4 a few days ago – don’t worry too much about what the query is trying to do, or why it has been written the way I’ve done it, the only point I want to make is that I’ve got the same plan from two different strategies (according to the baseline/outline/hints), but the plans have a difference in cost.

Here’s the definition of my table and index, with query and execution plan:

Subquery

How not to write subqueries:

AND     sal.ticket_airline || sal.ticket_number NOT IN (
                SELECT sub.dsd_airline || sub.dsd_ticket_number
                FROM   ...
        )

If there had been any opportunity for the optimizer to do something clever with the NOT IN, you’ve just made sure it can’t happen. On top of that you may find that you don’t get the right results – consider the following cut-n-paste:

SQL> select user from dual where 1 || 23 = 12 || 3;

USER
------------------------------
TEST_USER

1 row selected.

Sometimes people simply forget that you can have multiple columns in subqueries (or in “IN Lists”) – so it’s perfectly valid to write the subquery as:

12c Subqueries

When you upgrade you often find that some little detail (of the optimizer) that didn’t receive a lot of attention in the “New Features” manuals introduces a few dramatic changes in execution plans. Here’s one example of a detail that is likely to catch a few unlucky people. We start with a very simple table which is just and id column with some padding, and then show the effect of a change in the handling of “constant subqueries”. Here’s my data set:

Interesting Plan

A recent question on the OTN database forum included an execution plan that prompted one reader to ask: “but where has the existence subquery gone?” Here’s the original question showing the query, and here’s the later response showing the plan that prompted the question.

There were three possible reasons why that question may have been posed:

Not Pushing

Here’s an odd little optimizer glitch – probably irrelevant to most people, but an indication of the apparent randomness that appears as you combine features. I’ve created an example which is so tiny that the only explanation I can come up with the for optimizer not “behaving properly” is that I’ve found an undocumented restriction relating to a particular feature.

Here’s the basic schema structure with query and execution plan – there’s nothing particularly significant about the object definitions – they’re just a couple of (reduced) structures from a client site I visited a few years ago:

Illogical Tuning

The title is a bit of a joke, really. It’s mirroring a title I used a little over a year ago “Logical Tuning” and reflects my surprise that a silly little trick that I tried actually worked.

If you don’t want to read the original article, here’s a quick précis – I started with the first query, which the optimizer executed as a filter subquery, and rewrote it as the second query, which the optimizer executed as two anti-joins (reducing the execution time from 95 seconds to 27 seconds):

Update Error

When doing updates with statements that use correlated subqueries, it’s important to make sure that your brackets (parentheses) are in the right place. Here are two statements that look fairly similar but have remarkably different results – and sometimes people don’t realise how different the statements are:

update t1
set
        padding = (
                select
                        t2.padding
                from    t2
                where   t2.id = t1.id
        )
where   t1.small_vc <= lpad(20,10,'0')
;

update t1
set
        padding = (
                select
                        t2.padding
                from    t2
                where   t2.id = t1.id
                and     t1.small_vc <= lpad(20,10,'0')
        )
;