An interesting little problem appeared on the Oracle-L mailing list earlier on this week – a query ran fairly quickly when statistics hadn’t been collected on the tables, but then ran rather slowly after stats collection even though the plan hadn’t changed, and the tkprof results were there to prove the point. Here are the two outputs (edited slightly for width – the original showed three sets of row stats, the 1st, avg and max, but since the query had only been run once the three columns showed the same results in each case):
I know no one really likes the term “tuning” these days, but it’s a short catchy word that gets the idea across. So I’ll just stick with it for the title of this post.
Note that this is one of those posts that’s not really supposed to be about how to solve a particular problem. It’s really just a story about a distraction that I ran into and I how I thought about getting around the issue and then ultimately resolving the root cause. Maybe you will find it instructive to see the process.
You might have expected the following query ought to run reasonably efficiently, after all it seems to be targeted very accurately at precisely the few rows of information I’m interested in:
select column_name, avg_col_len from dba_subpart_col_statistics where owner = 'TEST_USER' and table_name = 'TEST_COMP' and subpartition_name = 'P_MAX_D'
I’m after some subpartition column stats (so that I can work out whether a subpartition of a local index on a composite partition is roughly the right size) and I’m querying the view by the only columns that seem to be there to allow me to access the data efficiently. Unfortunately the execution plan isn’t doing what I need it to do. The following plan is coming from a small 18.104.22.168 database with up to date statistics:
I have a small collection of postings where I’ve described anomalies or limitations in subquery factoring (the “with subquery”, or Common Table Expression (CTE) to give it the official ANSI name). Here’s another example of Oracle’s code not behaving consistently. You may recognise the basic query from yesterday’s example of logical tuning – so I won’t reprint the code to generate the data sets. This examples in this note were created on 22.214.171.124 – we start with a simple query and its execution plan:
Here’s a model of a problem I solved quite recently at a client site. The client’s query was much more complex and the volume of data much larger, but this tiny, two table, example is sufficient to demonstrate the key principle. (Originally I thought I’d have to use three tables to model the problem, which is why you may find my choice of table names a little odd). I ran this example on 126.96.36.199 – which was the client version:
My note on “NOT IN” subqueries is one of the most popular on my blog, staying in the top 5 hits for the last five years – but it’s getting a bit old, so it’s about time I said something new about “NOT IN” – especially since the Null Aware Anti Join has been around such a long time. The example I want to talk about is, as so often, something that came up as a problem on a customer site. Here’s a bit of SQL to model the situation, which is currently running under Oracle 188.8.131.52:
When I wrote a note last week about the fixes to the subquery factoring optimizer code in 184.108.40.206, I finished with a comment about having more to say on the test case if I materialized the subquery. Today’s the day to talk about it. As a reminder, here’s the query, but with the /*+ materialize */ hint in place:
with subq as ( select /*+ materialize */ outer.* from emp outer where sal > 1000000 and outer.sal > ( select avg(inner.sal) from emp inner where inner.dept_no = outer.dept_no ) ) select * from subq ;
Here are the three plans – from 10.2.0.5, 220.127.116.11, and 18.104.22.168 respectively:
Here’s an interesting little conundrum about subquery factoring that hasn’t changed in the recent (22.214.171.124) patch for subquery factoring. It came to me from Jared Still (a fellow member of Oak Table Network) shortly after I’d made some comments about the patch. It’s an example based on the scott/tiger schema – which I’ve extracted from the script $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlsampl.sql (though the relevant scripts may be demobld.sql or scott.sql, depending on version).
As usual I’ve used an 8KB block size, LMT with uniform 1MB extents, and no ASSM to hold the data. I won’t reproduce the code to generate the schema, just the versions of the query with, then without, subquery factoring:
It is human nature to draw from experiences to make sense of our surroundings. This holds true in life and performance tuning. A veteran systems administrator will typically tune a system different from an Oracle DBA. This is fine, but often what is obvious to one, is not to the other. It is sometimes necessary to take a step back to tune from another perspective.
I recently have ran across a few cases where a customer was tuning “Sorts” in the database by adding memory. Regardless of your prospective, every one knows memory is faster than disk; and the goal of any good tuner is to use as much in memory as possible. So, when it was noticed by the systems administrator that the “TEMP” disks for Oracle were doing a tremendous amount of IO, the answer was obvious right?
It’s always worth browsing through the list of Oracle’s bug fixes each time a new release or patch comes out because it can give you clues about where to look for problems in your production release – and how to anticipate problems on the upgrade. This article is an example of a fix that I found while while looking at the note for 126.96.36.199 quite recently.