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12c Subquery Factoring

From time to time I’ve posted a reminder that subquery factoring (“with subquery”) can give you changes in execution plans even if the subquery that you’ve taken out of line is written back inline by Oracle rather than being materialized. This can still happen in 12c – here’s a sample query in the two forms with the result sets and execution plans.  First, the “factored” version:


Here’s a little script to demonstrate an interesting observation that appeared in my email this morning (that’s morning Denver time):


I was involved in a thread on Oracle-L recently started with the question: “How many LIOs is too many LIOs”. Rather than rewrite the whole story, I’ve supplied a list of links to the contributions I made, in order – the final “answer” is actually the answer to a different question – but travels an interesting path to get there.#

Null Quiz

Here’s an example I saw a few months ago of the confusion caused by NULL. As the owner of the problem put it: the first query, run from SQL*Plus for testing purposes, takes no time to complete; but when “put into a pl/sql cursor” (as shown in the second query) it takes ages to complete.

What’s going on ?

    select id
         , description
         , inventory
    from the_table
    where category =  nvl(null, category);


    open c_results for
        select id
             , description
             , inventory
        from the_table
        where category =  nvl(p_user_category, category);
    fetch c_results into v_id, v_description, v_inventory;
    close c_results;

After pondering the problem for a while the OP managed to get the required level performance by changing the predicate to this:


How not to write subqueries:

AND     sal.ticket_airline || sal.ticket_number NOT IN (
                SELECT sub.dsd_airline || sub.dsd_ticket_number
                FROM   ...

If there had been any opportunity for the optimizer to do something clever with the NOT IN, you’ve just made sure it can’t happen. On top of that you may find that you don’t get the right results – consider the following cut-n-paste:

SQL> select user from dual where 1 || 23 = 12 || 3;


1 row selected.

Sometimes people simply forget that you can have multiple columns in subqueries (or in “IN Lists”) – so it’s perfectly valid to write the subquery as:

Hash Joins

I’ve written notes about the different joins in the past – but such things are always worth revisiting, so here’s an accumulated bundle of comments about hash joins.

12c Join Views

There are a couple of posts on the blog describing problems with updateable join views or, to be more precise, join views which were key-preserved but which the optimizer did not recognize as key-preserved. Both scenarios are addressed in 12c:

12c subquery factoring

I’ve written a few notes about anomalies in subquery factoring (with subquery) in the past, principally making a fuss about the fact that moving an inline view into a “with subquery” can cause a plan to change even when the internal code moves the subquery back in line. With the arrival of 12c one of my first sets of tests was to rerun all the examples to see how many of them had been addressed. I hadn’t written about as many examples as I had thought, and some of them had been fixed before 12c, but here are few references to a couple of outstanding items that I thought worth a mention:

12c First N

There have been a couple of nice posts about the “Top N” (or First N / Next N)  syntax that has appeared in 12c, here and here, for example. I particularly like the first set of examples because they include some execution plans that give you a good idea of what’s  going on under the covers. “Under the covers” is important, because if you don’t actually have a large data set to test on you might not realise what impact a “Top N” query might have on a production data set.

12c Adaptive Optimization

Since everyone seems to be all twitterpated about Oracle Database 12c this week, I thought I’d post a quick note to let you know that the slides from the presentation on 12c Adaptive Optimization I did at the Hotsos Symposium 2013 (with a lot of help from Maria) are now available in the Whitepapers / Presentations section of this blog.

While I’m on the topic, I found this little blurb in the Oracle Database 12c Release 1 New Features Guide: