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Analysing Parallel Execution Skew - Data Flow Operations (DFOs) And DFO Trees

This is the second part of the video tutorial "Analysing Parallel Execution Skew". In this part I introduce the concept of "Data Flow Operations (DFOs)" and "DFO Trees", which is what a Parallel Execution plan is made of. DFOs / DFO Trees are specific to Parallel Execution and don't have any counterpart in a serial execution plan.

Understanding the implications of DFOs / DFO Trees is important as prerequisite for understanding some of the effects shown in the later parts of the video tutorial, hence I covered this as a separate topic.

Note that this tutorial also demonstrates some new 12c features regarding Parallel Execution, in particular how Oracle 12c now lifts many of the previous limitations that lead to the generation of multiple DFO Trees.

Here is the video:

If you want to reproduce and play around with the DFO Tree variations shown in the tutorial here is the script for creating the tables and running the queries / DML commands used in the tutorial:

#eeeeee; border: 1px dashed rgb(204, 204, 204); overflow: auto;">-- Table creation
set echo on timing on time on

drop table t1;

purge table t1;

drop table t2;

purge table t2;

drop table t3;

purge table t3;

drop table t4;

purge table t4;

drop table t5;

purge table t5;

drop table x;

purge table x;

create table t1
as
select /*+ use_nl(a b) */
(rownum * 2) as id
, rownum as id2
, rpad('x', 100) as filler
from
(select /*+ cardinality(1000) */ * from dual
connect by
level <= 1000) a, (select /*+ cardinality(2) */ * from dual connect by level <= 2) b
;

exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(null, 't1')

alter table t1 cache;

create table t2
compress
as
select
(rownum * 2) + 1 as id
, mod(rownum, 2000) + 1 as id2
, rpad('x', 100) as filler
from
(select /*+ cardinality(1000000) */ * from dual
connect by
level <= 1000000) a, (select /*+ cardinality(2) */ * from dual connect by level <= 2) b
;

exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(null, 't2')

alter table t2 cache;

create table t3
as
select /*+ use_nl(a b) */
(rownum * 2) as id
, rownum as id2
, rpad('x', 100) as filler
from
(select /*+ cardinality(1000) */ * from dual
connect by
level <= 1000) a, (select /*+ cardinality(2) */ * from dual connect by level <= 2) b
;

exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(null, 't3')

alter table t3 cache;

create table t4
compress
as
select
(rownum * 2) + 1 as id
, mod(rownum, 2000) + 1 as id2
, rpad('x', 100) as filler
from
(select /*+ cardinality(1000000) */ * from dual
connect by
level <= 1000000) a, (select /*+ cardinality(2) */ * from dual connect by level <= 2) b
;

exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(null, 't4')

alter table t4 cache;

create table t5
as
select /*+ use_nl(a b) */
(rownum * 2) as id
, rownum as id2
, rpad('x', 100) as filler
from
(select /*+ cardinality(1000) */ * from dual
connect by
level <= 1000) a, (select /*+ cardinality(2) */ * from dual connect by level <= 2) b
;

exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(null, 't5')

alter table t5 cache;

create table x
compress
as
select * from t2
where 1 = 2;

create unique index x_idx1 on x (id);

alter table t1 parallel 2;

alter table t2 parallel 2;

alter table t3 parallel 15;

alter table t4 parallel 15;

alter table t5 parallel 15;

---------------------------------------------------------------
-- Single DFO tree (with Parallel Execution Skew), many DFOs --
---------------------------------------------------------------

set echo on timing on time on verify on

define num_cpu = "15"

select
max(t1_id)
, max(t1_filler)
, max(t2_id)
, max(t2_filler)
, max(t3_id)
, max(t3_filler)
from (
select /*+ monitor
no_merge
no_merge(v_1)
no_merge(v_5)
parallel(t1 &num_cpu)
PQ_DISTRIBUTE(T1 HASH HASH)
PQ_DISTRIBUTE(V_5 HASH HASH)
leading (v_1 v_5 t1)
use_hash(v_1 v_5 t1)
swap_join_inputs(t1)
*/
t1.id as t1_id
, regexp_replace(v_5.t3_filler, '^\s+([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') as t1_filler
, v_5.*
from (
select /*+ parallel(t2 &num_cpu)
parallel(t3 &num_cpu)
leading(t3 t2)
use_hash(t3 t2)
swap_join_inputs(t2)
PQ_DISTRIBUTE(T2 HASH HASH)
*/
t2.id as t2_id
, t2.filler as t2_filler
, t2.id2 as t2_id2
, t3.id as t3_id
, t3.filler as t3_filler
from
t1 t2
, t2 t3
where
t3.id2 = t2.id2 (+)
and regexp_replace(t3.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler (+), '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')
and mod(t3.id2, 3) = 0
) v_1
, (
select /*+ parallel(t2 &num_cpu)
parallel(t3 &num_cpu)
leading(t3 t2)
use_hash(t3 t2)
swap_join_inputs(t2)
PQ_DISTRIBUTE(T2 HASH HASH)
*/
t2.id as t2_id
, t2.filler as t2_filler
, t2.id2 as t2_id2
, t3.id as t3_id
, t3.filler as t3_filler
from
t1 t2
, t2 t3
where
t3.id = t2.id (+)
and regexp_replace(t3.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler (+), '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')
and mod(t3.id2, 3) = 0
) v_5
, t1
where
v_1.t3_id = v_5.t3_id
and v_5.t2_id2 = t1.id2 (+) + 2001
and regexp_replace(v_5.t3_filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t1.filler (+), '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')
)
;

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Multiple DFO trees no parent / child (with different DOPs), separate slave sets, one active after the other (12.1: Still multiple DFO trees) --
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

set echo on timing on time on verify on

with a as (
select /*+ materialize monitor no_merge */
t1.id as t1_id
, regexp_replace(t3_filler, '^\s+([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') as t1_filler
, v1.*
from (
select /*+ no_merge pq_distribute(t3 hash hash) */
t2.id as t2_id
, t2.filler as t2_filler
, t2.id2 as t2_id2
, t3.id as t3_id
, t3.filler as t3_filler
from
t1 t2
, t2 t3
where
t3.id2 = t2.id
and regexp_replace(t3.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')
and mod(t3.id2, 2) = 0
) v1
, t1
where
v1.t2_id2 = t1.id2
),
b as (
select /*+ materialize monitor no_merge */
t1.id as t1_id
, regexp_replace(t3_filler, '^\s+([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') as t1_filler
, v1.*
from (
select /*+ no_merge pq_distribute(t3 hash hash) */
t2.id as t2_id
, t2.filler as t2_filler
, t2.id2 as t2_id2
, t3.id as t3_id
, t3.filler as t3_filler
from
t3 t2
, t4 t3
where
t3.id2 = t2.id
and regexp_replace(t3.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')
and mod(t3.id2, 2) = 0
) v1
, t5 t1
where
v1.t2_id2 = t1.id2
)
select max(t1_id), max(t1_filler), max(t2_id), max(t2_filler), max(t3_id), max(t3_filler) from (
select /*+ no_merge */
a.t1_id
, a.t1_filler
, a.t2_id
, a.t2_filler
, a.t3_id
, regexp_replace(a.t3_filler, '^\s+([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') as t3_filler
from
a
, b
where
a.t3_id = b.t3_id
and regexp_replace(a.t3_filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(b.t3_filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')
and mod(a.t1_id, 4) = 0
and mod(b.t1_id, 4) = 0
)
;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Multiple DFO trees parent / child (with different DOPs), separate slave sets, concurrently active (12.1: Single DFO tree) --
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

set echo on timing on time on

alter session enable parallel dml;

truncate table x;

insert /*+ append parallel(x 4) */ into x
select /*+ leading(v1 v2) */
v_1.id
, v_1.id2
, v_1.filler
from (
select
id
, id2
, filler
from (
select /*+ parallel(t2 4) no_merge */
rownum as id
, t2.id2
, t2.filler
from
t2
where
mod(t2.id2, 3) = 0
and regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'i')
) v1
) v_1
, (
select
id
, id2
, filler
from (
select /*+ parallel(t2 8) no_merge */
rownum as id
, t2.id2
, t2.filler
from
t2
where
mod(t2.id2, 3) = 0
and regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'i')
) v2
) v_2
where
v_1.id = v_2.id
and v_1.filler = v_2.filler
;

commit;

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Multiple DFO trees parent / child (with different DOPs), separate slave sets, *not* concurrently active (12.1: Single DFO tree) --
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

set echo on timing on time on

alter session enable parallel dml;

truncate table x;

insert /*+ append parallel(x 4) */ into x
select
v1.*
from (
select /*+ parallel(t2 4) */
lag(t2.id) over (order by regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')) as id
, t2.id2
, regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') as filler
from
t2
where
mod(t2.id2, 3) = 0
) v1
, (
select /*+ parallel(t2 8) */
lag(id) over (order by regexp_replace(filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')) as id
, id2
, regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') as filler
from
t2
where
mod(t2.id2, 3) = 0
) v2
where
v1.id = v2.id
and v1.filler = v2.filler
;

commit;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Multiple DFO trees, no parent/child, multiple DFO tree starts, no separate slave sets, concurrently active (12.1: Single DFO tree, new parallel FILTER/SUBQUERY) --
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

set echo on timing on time on

select /*+ no_merge(x) */
*
from (
select
v1.filler
, (select /*+ parallel(x 2) */ id from t2 x where x.id = v1.id) as id
, (select /*+ parallel(x 2) */ id2 from t2 x where x.id = v1.id) as id2
from (
select /*+ parallel(t2 4) */
t2.id
, t2.id2
, t2.filler
from
t2
) v1
, (
select /*+ parallel(t2 8) */
t2.id
, t2.id2
, t2.filler
from
t2
) v2
where
v1.id = v2.id
and v1.filler = v2.filler
) x
where
rownum <= 100
;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Multiple DFO trees, no parent/child, multiple DFO tree starts, separate slave sets, concurrently active (12.1: Single DFO tree, new parallel FILTER) --
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

set echo on timing on time on

select /*+ parallel(t2 8)
parallel(t3 8)
leading(t3 t2)
use_hash(t3 t2)
swap_join_inputs(t2)
PQ_DISTRIBUTE(T2 HASH HASH)
--PQ_FILTER(@"SEL$1" NONE)
*/
t2.id as t2_id
, t2.filler as t2_filler
, t2.id2 as t2_id2
, t3.id as t3_id
, t3.filler as t3_filler
from
t1 t2
, t2 t3
where
t3.id2 = t2.id2 (+)
and regexp_replace(t3.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler (+), '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c')
and mod(t3.id2, 3) = 0
and not exists (select /*+ no_unnest parallel(t2 2) */ null from t2 x where x.id2 = t2.id2)
;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Multiple DFO trees, no parent/child, multiple DFO tree starts, separate slave sets, concurrently active (12.1: Still multiple DFO trees, serial FILTER) --
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

set echo on timing on time on

alter session enable parallel dml;

truncate table x;

insert /*+ append parallel(x 4) */ into x
select /*+ leading(v1 v2) */
v_1.id
, v_1.id2
, v_1.filler
from (
select
id
, id2
, filler
from (
select /*+ parallel(t2 4) no_merge */
rownum as id
, t2.id2
, t2.filler
from
t2
where
mod(t2.id2, 3) = 0
and regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'i')
) v1
) v_1
, (
select
id
, id2
, filler
from (
select /*+ parallel(t2 8) no_merge */
rownum as id
, t2.id2
, t2.filler
from
t2
where
mod(t2.id2, 3) = 0
and regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'c') = regexp_replace(t2.filler, '^([[:alnum:]]+)\s+$', lpad('\1', 10), 1, 1, 'i')
) v2
) v_2
where
v_1.id = v_2.id
and v_1.filler = v_2.filler
and not exists (select /*+ no_unnest parallel(y 2) */ null from t2 y where y.id2 = v_1.id2)
;

commit;