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Table Scans

It’s amazing how easy it is to interpret a number incorrectly until the point comes where you have to look at it closely – and then you realise that there was a lot more to the number than your initial casual assumption, and you would have realised it all along if you’d ever needed to think about it before.

Here’s a little case in point. I have a simple (i.e. non-partitioned) heap table t1 which is basically a clone of the view dba_segments, and I’ve just connected to Oracle through an SQL*Plus session then run a couple of SQL statements. The following is a continuous log of my activity:


SQL> select table_name, partitioned, blocks from user_tables;

TABLE_NAME           PAR     BLOCKS
-------------------- --- ----------
T1                   NO         958

1 row selected.

SQL> select name, value from v$mystat ms, v$statname sn where ms.statistic# = sn.statistic# and name like '%table scan%';

NAME                                  VALUE
-------------------------------- ----------
table scans (short tables)                9
table scans (long tables)                 0
table scans (rowid ranges)                0
table scans (cache partitions)            0
table scans (direct read)                 0
table scan rows gotten                 4188
table scan blocks gotten                 14

7 rows selected.

SQL> select count(extents) from t1;

COUNT(EXTENTS)
--------------
          5143

1 row selected.

SQL> select name, value from v$mystat ms, v$statname sn where ms.statistic# = sn.statistic# and name like '%table scan%';

  • My cache size is quite small, so t1 doesn’t count as a “short” table.
  • I’ve collected stats on the table (and there are no indexes) so the optimizer doesn’t need to do any dynamic sampling to generate an execution plan.
  • This is 11g, so there are no SQL Plan Directives in place to force dynamic sampling

So here’s the question: how many “table scans (long tables)” will Oracle record against my session when I re-run that query against v$mystat ?

Warning – this IS a trick question.

Update number 1

I said it was a trick question and, as you will have seen if you’ve had time to read the comments, the answer is going to depend on various configuration options. Here’s what I got in my test – and I’ve reported not just the session stats, but the segment statistics (v$segment_statistics):


NAME                                  VALUE
-------------------------------- ----------
table scans (short tables)                9
table scans (long tables)                26
table scans (rowid ranges)               26
table scans (cache partitions)            0
table scans (direct read)                 0
table scan rows gotten                 9331
table scan blocks gotten                954

7 rows selected.

SQL> select owner, object_name, object_type, value  from v$segment_statistics where owner = 'TEST_USER' and statistic_name = 'segment scans' and value != 0;

OWNER           OBJECT_NAME          OBJECT_TYPE             VALUE
--------------- -------------------- ------------------ ----------
TEST_USER       T1                   TABLE                      26

1 row selected.

I recorded 26 long table scans – and that 26 was echoed in the segment statistics. (Note: I don’t normally use v$segment_statistics, which is a join between a couple of in-memory structures and three real table, I usually query v$segstat). It’s the segment statistics that made me pause in a recent problem review;  up to that moment I had been using the “Segments by Table Scans” section of the AWR Report as a useful (but badly named – since it also counts (most) index fast full scans) indicator of a potential threat, then I suddenly realised that there was yet another important detail I had to check before I could determine what the numbers were telling me.

So the next question is WHY has Oracle reported 26 tablescans ?

Update number 2

Martin Preiss (see comments) has been working hard to investigate this, and managed to produce a couple more variations in statistics for “the same” problem. In my case I had declared the table as “parallel 2”. For a table of degree N Oracle is very likely to break the table into 13*N chunks – there’s a historic reason for 13 – and that’s why I see 26 “rowid range” scans which, unfortunately, are also recorded as “long” table scans even though each is individually well short of the short table limit. This is really annoying when you start to look at the “Segments by Table Scan” report buecause you now don’t know how many times a table really was scanned unless you know something about the run-time degree of parellelism involved.

If you check the hidden parameters you will find several parameters relating to this chunking, in particular:


_px_min_granules_per_slave        minimum number of rowid range granules to generate per slave (default  13)
_px_max_granules_per_slave        maximum number of rowid range granules to generate per slave (default 100)

Technically, therefore, Oracle MIGHT get to 100 granules per parallel slave, and a tablescan at degree 2 could be recorded as 200 tablescans!

Martin asked why my 26 tablescans didn’t show up as “table scans (direct read)” – but that’s 11g for you, it allows a serial tablescan to use direct path reads, and it allows parallel tablescans to read into the cache, and the combination of cache size and table size meant that my example just happened to read into the cache.

And that introduces ANOTHER interpretation problem – what annoying things might I discover if I declare the table the the CACHE option ? (as Ivica suggested in his first comment below) ?

Final Update (probably)

Iviva has been busy on checking the CACHE operation and shown that there are a number of cases to consider (more, in fact, than I was planning to mention – and the variation the combination in NOPARALLEL and CACHE should give you some pause for thought). The only point I wanted to make was the effect of enabling PARALLEL and CACHE; I don’t think that this is a combination that is very likely to appear in a production system, but boundary conditions (and accidents) do occur. With my little sample – even after I grew the table to be MUCH larger, the tablescan DIDN’T get reported: here are some session stats and segment stats (taken using my snapshot code) of a single tablescan running parallel 2 when the table was cached:


Name                                                                     Value
----                                                                     -----
table scans (rowid ranges)                                                  26
table scans (cache partitions)                                              26
table scan rows gotten                                                 164,672
table scan blocks gotten                                                29,611

  Statistic                                    Value
  ---------                             ------------

T1
  logical reads                               30,272
  physical reads                              29,614
  physical read requests                         261

I know I’ve done a tablescan in 26 pieces (parallel 2) – and scanned 29,000+ blocks doing it; but according to the segment stats AND session stats I haven’t done a tablescan. Fortunately, of course, I can see the parallel tablescan in the session stats, and in this isolated case I can see from the “cache partitions” statistics that that tablescan was on a cached table. But if I’ve been depending on the segment stats to tell me about which tablescans happen most frequently and do most work I’ve found another reason why I can’t trust the stats and have to do more work cross-checking different parts of the AWR for self-consistent results.

I don’t expect to add any more comments about this mixture of tablescans and parallelism, with the varying effects on the session and segment statistics – but there’s always the possibility that one day I’ll start to worry about how the KEEP and RECYCLE (db_keep_cache_size and db_recycle_cache_size) could confuse things further.

Footnote:

It’s probably worth pointing out that the segment statistics have never recorded SHORT tablescans, they’ve only ever captured details of LONG tablescans. There is a slight inconsistency here, though, since they capture all the “index fast full scans (full)” reported in the session stats whether they are short or long – not that the session stats record the difference; unfortunately, another flaw creeps in: parallel index fast full scans “disappear” from the stats, although they show up as “index fast full scans (rowid ranges)” and “index fast full scans (direct)” with the same multiplier of 13 that we see for parallel table scans.